Augmentation (Bone Augmentation)

Placing dental implants in a functionally and aesthetically appropriate position is often problematic in cases of severe bone deficiency, particularly in the anterior region of the upper jaw or posterior region of the lower jaw. One of the methods applied to solve the problem is the enlargement of the area with autogenous (with the person’s own bone) onlay grafts. For this purpose, autogenous bone grafts obtained from the posterior region of the mandible are placed in areas where bone is insufficient and fixed with osteosynthesis screws. The aim of the surgical method is to prepare the post-augmentation bone defects for implant surgery. Thanks to this method, the insufficient bone volume available for implant application can be made sufficient and implants of suitable size and diameter can be applied.

Inadequate alveolar crests may require bone grafting procedures to achieve appropriate bone volume prior to implant placement. This procedure is important in terms of correct positioning of the implant and ensuring aesthetics in the restoration. Block grafts from the ramus or symphysis are often used to treat severe bone defects.

Implant treatment is closely related to the sufficient amount of bone and the relationship between jaws. Techniques such as autogenous bone grafts, alloplastic materials, distractionosteogenesis are used when the width and/or height of the alveolar bone is not sufficient for implant placement.

The amount and location of bone loss are among the factors that influence the choice of augmentation technique. Failure to place the implant in the correct position leads to undesirable conditions in the crown exit profile. The relationship between the jaws should be evaluated in the transverse, sagittal and frontal planes during the clinical evaluation phase.

Different treatment methods can be used in cases where the width of the alveolar bone is insufficient or its contours are not as desired. Minor defects are treated with splitting or guided tissue regeneration (DTR), allografts, or xenografts; Large defects can be successfully treated with inlay and onlay grafting techniques obtained from the outside of the mouth such as iliac, tibia, scapula, calvaria or from the mouth such as ramus, symphysis, tuber. Today, the symphysis and ramus regions are considered as primary donor sites for the reconstruction of defects.